The museum was named in honor of the first Mongolian Buddhist leader, Bogd Khaan (a gifted painter, sculptor, linguist and architect). It opened in 1966 and shows Mongolian art work from the Paleolithic Age (early stone age) to the early 20th century.
Mongolia, known as the land of rock paintings, has well over 200 historical rock painting sites. Three types of prehistoric rock carvings and paintings can be seen:the Paleolithic (40,000-120,000 ago), Neolithic (8000-4000 ago) and Bronze Age.
Built between 1904 and 1908, this museum was originally a temple for the younger brother of the last Bogd Khaan, the political and religious leader of Mongolia. It houses, among other works of art, an impressive collection of masks and costumes formerly used in the religious dances called “TSAM”. There are many original wooden and bronze statues of various gods; some created by Zanabazar, the famous Mongolian sculptor.