Culture and Education
The oral tradition of folklore includes myth, fables, legends, sayings and proverbs, song lyrics and poetry, especially the epic, the poetry of praise and good wishes. The history of written literature is now known to date from the XIII century and its first creation was “Mongolyn Nuuts Tovchoo” (Secret History of the Mongols) written in 1240 and published in 1382 main theme of which is the unification of separate Mongol tribes by Chinggis Khaan under the banner of a single state. An invariable lively response is evoked in many countries around the world by Mongolian painting and handicraft, and by performance by Mongolian circus acrobats, singers and dancers.
Literacy rate 89.5%. Education system consists of pre-school education (kindergarten), general education (primary school 1-6, incomplete secondary school 1-8, complete secondary school 1-10), and professional education (universities). Pre-school and general education is free.
Mongolia has one of Asia’s largest freshwater lakes – Hovsgol and river system. 75.1 percent of territory – pasture land and 8.0 percent – forest. Vegetation cover – 2260 species of vascular plants united in 596 genera and 104 families. Fauna – 127 species of mammals, 360 species of birds and 70 species of fishes.
Sharp continental, marked by four seasons. Average summer temperature +17’C, average winter temperature -26’C, average rainfall 200-220 mm. The cold winter season lasts from November to late April, Spring May through June is cool and windy. Summer from July through to September with occasional rain is the best season for travel and outdoor activities. Autumn months are cool but sunny.